Δευτέρα, 13 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

Emmanuel Macron  born 21 December 1977) is a French politician, senior civil servant, former investment banker, and leading candidate for the French presidency in the upcoming elections in April-May 2017. Born in Amiens, he studied Philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, and later graduated from the École nationale d'administration (ENA) in 2004. He went on to become an Inspector of Finances in the French Inspectorate General of Finances (IGF) before becoming an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. A member of the French Socialist Party (PS) from 2006 to 2009, he was appointed deputy secretary-general under François Hollande's first government in 2012 before being appointed Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs in 2014 under the Second Valls Government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016, in order to launch a social liberal  bid in the 2017 presidential election.  In November 2016, Macron declared that he would stand in the election under the banner of En Marche!, a movement he founded in April 2016.
Born in Amiens, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is the son of Jean-Michel Macron, Professor of Neurology at the University of Picardy, and Françoise Macron-Noguès, a doctor.
He was educated mostly at the La Providence lycée in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the élite high school Lycée Henri-IV in Paris. He studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree.
He obtained a degree in Public Affairs at Sciences Po, before training for a senior civil service career at the École nationale d'administration (ENA), graduating in 2004
Macron worked as an Inspector of Finances in the French Ministry of Economy between 2004 and 2008. In 2007, he served as deputy rapporteur for the Commission to improve French growth headed by Jacques Attali.
He left to work as an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. While at Rothschild, he closed a high-profile deal between Nestlé and Pfizer, which made him a millionaire.
Macron was a member of the Socialist Party (PS) from 2006 to 2009. In 2015, during an interview on BFM TV, he stated that he was no longer a member of the PS and was now an Independent. From 2012 to 2014, he served as deputy secretary-general of the Élysée, a senior role in President Hollande's staff.  He was appointed Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Data in the second Valls Cabinet on 26 August 2014, replacing Arnaud Montebourg.
As Minister of the Economy, Macron was at the forefront of pushing through business-friendly reforms. In February 2015, he pledged that government would force through reforms despite opposition from the parliament. The statement came in response to European Commission pressure over repeatedly missed public deficit targets.
On 30 August 2016, Macron resigned from the government ahead of the 2017 presidential election, with the view of launching a social liberal bid for the presidency. This came shortly after he founded his own progressive  political movement, En Marche!, an independent political party, for which he was reprimanded by President Hollande.
On 16 November 2016, Macron formally declared his candidacy for the French presidency after months of speculation. In his announcement speech, Macron called for a "democratic revolution" and promised to "unblock France".

Emmanuel Macron has been described by some observers as a social liberal and by others as a social democrat.  During his time in the French Socialist Party, he supported the party's conservative wing, whose political stance has been associated with "third way" policies advanced by Bill ClintonTony Blair and Gerhard Schröder, and whose leading spokesman has been former prime minister Manuel Valls.  Macron has notably advocated in favor of the free market and reducing the public-finances deficit.  Macron publicly used the term "liberal" to describe himself for the first time in 2015 in an interview with Le Monde. He added that he is certainly "not ultra-liberal," "neither right nor left," and that he advocates "a collective solidarity." During a visit to the Vendée in August 2016, he stated, "Honesty compels me to say that I am not a socialist." He explained that he was part of the "left government" at the time because he wanted "to serve the public interest" as any minister would. In his book Revolution, published in November 2016, Macron presented himself as both a "leftist" and a "liberal ... if by liberalism one means trust in man." With his party En Marche!, Macron's stated aim is to transcend the left-right divide in a manner similar to François Bayrou or Jacques Chaban-Delmas, asserting that "the real divide in our country ... is between progressives and conservatives." With the launch of his independent candidacy and his use of anti-establishment rhetoric, Macron has been labelled a "populist" by some observers, notably Manuel Valls, but he rejects this term.

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